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CBD Fundamentals

What is CBD?

CBD (cannabidiol) is one of over 100 plant compounds called cannabinoids that come from the plant species Cannabis Sativa L.

What is THC? 

THC is the cannabinoid which is psychoactive, and is responsible for producing the notorious high from Cannabis plants. It does this by activating the CB1 receptor in the brain. THC is illegal for this reason in many parts of the world.

In the UK and EU, levels of THC of up to 0.2% in products is considered safe as this is not sufficient to produce a high when it is taken.

0.2% is also the legal limit for THC, and products must be below this concentration if they are to be legal.

Where does CBD come from?

CBD naturally occurs in plants from the Cannabis genus. There are 3 species of plants: 

  • C. Sativa L
  • C. Indica
  • C. Ruderalis. 

Types of Cannabis

How is CBD legal? 

CBD is is almost always sourced from C. Sativa L. There are various subspecies ofC. Sativa L , which differ in their constitution:

  • One naturally contains THC at a level which exceeds the legal limit in the UK and EU (more than 0.2%, sometimes up to 30%). These are known as type I plants.
  • The other naturally contains THC at a level which is below the legal limit in the UK and EU (less than 0.2%). These are known as type III plants.

In the UK and EU, CBD is sourced almost exclusively from type III  C. Sativa L. plants, because of their low THC.

Some special strains of C. Sativa L have been bred to contain all the benefits of type I plants, whilst keeping THC low. These are known as type II plants.

Is CBD Safe? 

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared that CBD is generally safe and well tolerated (1). 

The WHO report also declared that CBD was:

  • Non-addictive
  • Well tolerated
  • Non-psychoactive

Long term use of up to 1,500mg oral CBD/day for 4 weeks has been reported in research (*).

Daily use of CBD in doses of 300mg has been safe for up to 6 months (*).

Bear in mind this is an oral dose. Topical doses don’t act centrally, so its likely that a similar dose may be tolerable when used through the skin. Research still has to confirm this though.

Does It Get You High? 

CBD is one of many cannabinoids that does not produce a high. Unlike THC, it does not activate the CB1 receptor in the brain.

CBD is said to be ‘non-psychoactive’. This is only partly true. Whilst it doesn’t produce a high, it can still have subtle effects on mood, so is not truly non-psychoactive. More like semi psycho-active.

With topical application of CBD you don’t need to worry about psycho-activity, as it doesn’t have an effect on the brain.

Does CBD have any side effects?

Studies have shown side effects with CBD, but only for oral consumption. No side effects have been noted from using topical CBD.

A review of clinical studies concluded that in comparison to other drugs, CBD produced less (severe) side effects (*).

CBD: Under The Skin

What is Topical CBD good for?

  • Arthritis (*)
  • Swelling
  • Psoriasis (*)
  • Dermatitis (*)
  • Muscle Pain (*)

What is the main difference between CBD taken orally and topically?

CBD doesn’t have the same widespread effects as when its taken orally,  because it doesn’t enter the bloodstream.

What are the upsides to taking topical CBD?

  • CBD is more bioavailable when applied through the skin. (bypasses liver)
  • The effects are highly concentrated to the area it is applied.
  • Less risk/risk eliminated of testing positive on a drugs test.

What are the downsides to using topical CBD?

  • The effects of topical CBD are localised to the area it is applied.
  • It may not pose the same benefits on the brain and psychological conditions. At least not directly.

How does CBD work to reduce pain?

CBD may pass through the epidermis (outer layer of skin) into the dermis. The dermis is home to sensory neurones expressing receptors which signal pain perception. One of those receptors is CB1.

CBD increases the supply of a chemical called Anandamide in the dermis. Once increased, Anandamide can activate CB1 & CB2 receptors to reduce pain.

CBD may also activate another pain receptor in the dermis, TRPV1.

CBD and pain, balms, creams and lotions

How does CBD work to reduce inflammation?

Again, once CBD has passed through the epidermis (outer layer of skin) into the dermis, it can increase the activation of CB2 on immune cells, which tells them to chill out on inflammation.

CBD also directly activates TRPV1 to reduce inflammation. Inflammation plays a role in skin conditions such as psoriasis and dermatitis.

CBD may also support muscle recovery through reducing inflammation.

CBD and Inflammation, Psoriasis and Dermatitis

How does CBD work to increase muscle recovery? 

Following exercise, recovering muscles need to be replenished with oxygen and nutrients. That requires an increase in blood flow.

CBD is a vasodilator, which means it can increase blood flow. It dilates blood vessels through activating the TRPV1receptor, upon delivery through the dermis. Increased blood flow delivers more oxygen and nutrients to recovering muscles.

Anecdotally, a lot of people report of reduced muscular soreness following the use of CBD.

A recent study has confirmed that CBD may help with muscular soreness (*)

.

CBD and Muscle Recovery

How does CBD benefit the skin? 

CBD has shown potential as an antibacterial and antifungal agent (*), (*). It was also found to be as powerful as commonly used antibiotics (*).

If the usual balance of microbes on the skin becomes disturbed, this may lead to infections and skin conditions.

Using CBD may be a useful way of maintaining balance across the microbiome of the skin.

CBD is also a powerful antioxidant, which may serve to protect keratinocytes (skin cells) against oxidative damage. This may help protect against skin diseases, and promote healthy vibrant skin (*).

Again, CBD’s anti-inflammatory activity also helps protect damage to the skin, and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (*).

When mustn’t topical CBD be used? 

Some people have found that they can be allergic to hemp. It’s worth remembering this when you use topical formulations, just in case.

Although topical CBD may help with wound healing, there is a risk of infection if it is applied to open wounds. Avoid applying CBD until the wound has undergone some healing first.

Summary of ways CBD works through / on the skin

  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-Inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Vasodialator

Gaia Guru CBD

Where our CBD comes from

We’ve been on the hunt for the best CBD extract we can find. We source our CBD from EU certified strains of C. Sativa L, so we know how the plants are grown, their quality and traceability.

We carefully select strains of C. Sativa L that are not only high in CBD, but also other beneficial cannabinoids as well. Other cannabinoids provide an enhanced effect over and above just CBD.

We also look for strains that have a particularly high concentration and diversity of terpenes. These are the chemicals that give cannabis plants their unique fragrances, and provide therapeutic value of their own in addition to cannabinoids.

About our Extract

We ensure our extract is compliant with EU and UK legislation, containing no more than 0.2% THC, whilst also maintaining high levels of CBD and other beneficial cannabinoids.

We get our CBD by using a technique called supercritical Co2 Extraction. This is the gold standard method for extracting CBD from cannabis plants, because it is one of the cleanest procedures available.

Using Co2 enables the extraction of many beneficial plant compounds from cannabis whilst minimising any residual impurities.

Using Co2 produces whats known as a full spectrum extract.

What kind of CBD we use

We use a full spectrum extract, which is as good as it gets when it comes to CBD. Full spectrum extracts contain other cannabinoids (low/no THC), terpenes, flavinoids and phytochemicals. When these chemicals remain together they provide an enhanced experience beyond just CBD, known as the entourage effect.

Some of the other cannabinoids include Cannabigerol (CBG) and Cannabichromene (CBC), which are also beneficial like CBD is. Both CBG and CBC are also anti-inflammatory and analgesics.

However, some products contain just CBD, nothing else. This is known as CBD isolate.

Here’s and analogy to compare Full Spectrum CBD to CBD isolate. If you think of CBD as the sugar contained within an orange; when you use full spectrum, you get the whole orange, sugar included. However, CBD isolate is basically just extracting the sugar from the orange, meaning you don’t get all the other great stuff in the orange.

Lab Tests

We send our products to be tested by third party laboratories. This helps ensure the quality is up to the high standards we aim to hold for our products.

Our products are tested for CBD content, so we can guarantee they have the concentration of CBD we say they do. This test also demonstrates that THC is bellow the UK and EU limits, and ensures compliance with the law.

We also test our products for terpenes, which are shown to be in both high concentrations and rich in diversity in our products. These compliment the effects of CBD for a truly superior experience.

Our products are intended to be beneficial for the health of who ever uses them, which is why we go to extra lengths to ensure their purity and safety. We test our products for heavy metals, and are proud to say that they are devoid of these contaminants.

Quality Control

Our products are manufactured in a fully licensed facility, are safety assessed and a Cosmetic Product Safety Report (CPSR) is created before they are put on sale, meeting all current EU standards set out in EU Regulations EC No 1223/2009 (Previously EU Cosmetics Directive).

The 2013 Regulations require that all products are micro-biologically (Preservative Efficacy Test) and Stability tested before the Cosmetic Product Safety Report can be made.

All products are registered on the cosmetic products notification portal (CPNP) in order to meet the obligations of Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009.

We are strongly against animal testing, none of our products or ingredients have been tested on animals.

All our products are made in the UK and are produced to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice).

CBD Muscle Balm

When would you use the CBD Muscle Balm?

The muscle balm contains the highest concentration of CBD per ml of total product. This makes it ideal for use on targeted areas, where the client may desire relief from muscle soreness and/or joint pain.

The ingredients in the muscle balm are a synergy of powerful anti-inflammatories and analgesics. The balm is a beautiful complement to the therapeutic work undertaken in a deep tissue and/ or sports massage.

The consistency is grippy, which you or your clients may prefer when it comes to the sensation of the massage.

The balm is also a great antimicrobial and has a high concentration of antioxidants, which is useful for treatment against skin conditions. Its use on targeted areas of the body also makes it ideal for treating localised skin conditions.

  • Localised application
  • Best used for muscle and joint pain
  • Also useful for localised skin conditions

What is CBD Muscle Balm Good For?

  • Moisturising dry skin.
  • Protecting against ageing and wrinkled skin.
  • Repairing and rejuvenating damaged skin.
  • Alleviating aches and pains in combination with massage therapy.
  • Enhancing relaxation from massage therapy.
  • Enhancing muscle recovery

What are the ingredients? 

  • C. Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil
  • Cera Alba (Beeswax)
  • C. Sativa (Full spectrum extract – 1000mg CBD)
  • Eucalyptus Globulus leaf oil
  • Mentha Piperia (Peppermint) oil
  • Eugenia Carophyllus (Clove) Bud oil
  • Vitamin E Tocopherol
  • Limonene
  • Linalool
  • Eugenol

How Much CBD is contained within a serving of Muscle Balm? 

The muscle balm contains approximately 1000mg of CBD per 60ml:

  • A 5ml application contains 80mg CBD.
  • A 10ml application contains 160mg CBD.

What is the percentage CBD concentration of the balm?

1.6% (1000mg CBD / 60000mg Total x 100 = 1.6%)

What are the benefits of the formulation? 

Individually, each of our muscle balm ingredients have beneficial qualities. Together, they synergise to provide a truly superior experience.

Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp seed oil contains a high concentration of Polyunsaturated Fats (Omega-6 and Omega-3’s). They are particularly beneficial for managing levels of inflammation, which is healing and soothing for the skin (*), (*). 

Cannabisins are other chemicals found in hemp seed oil, which also reduce inflammation, and act as antioxidants to protect the skin (*), (*), (*). 

Hemp seed oil has been found to alleviate eczema (*), and reduces acne, dry skin and psoriasis (*)

Hemp seed oil is an antimicrobial, and strengthens the skins resistance to bacterial, viral and fungal infections (*).

Beeswax

Beeswax, mixed with honey and olive oil reduced psoriasis and dermatitis after 2 weeks (*). 

Beeswax, mixed with honey and olive oil reduced tinea versicolor (fungal infection) in 86% patients after 4 weeks (*).

Effects of Beeswax are:

  • Antibacterial (*)
  • Antifungal (*)
  • Anti-inflammatory (*)
  • Antioxidant (*)

Cannabidiol

See CBD: Under the Skin

Eucalyptus Oil

Eucalyptus oil, which is made from the leaves and branches of eucalyptus, contains 60% to 90% eucalyptol.

Eucalyptol is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic (*).

Eucalyptus oil is also antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral (*), (*), (*)

Peppermint Oil

Peppermint oil is a complex mixture of compounds, including 30% to 70% menthol, 15% to 30% menthone, 4% to 32% menthyl acetate, and 1% to 4% pulegone.

When applied topically, peppermint oil (10% Menthol) reduced neuropathic pain for 4-6 hours (*).

Patients with chronic pruritus (itch) using peppermint oil had significant improvement in all symptoms after 2 weeks (*)

Peppermint oil is also:

  • Antibacterial (*)
  • Antifungal (*)
  • Anti-inflammatory (*)
  • Antioxidant (*)

Clove Bud Oil

Clove bud oil contains 60% to 90% eugenol, and ~ 13% beta-caryophyllene.

Eugenol has been found to be an anaesthetic when applied topically through the skin (*), (*). Beta-caryophyllene also reduces pain (*).

Clove bud oil also reduced symptoms of pruritus (itch) (*)

Clove bud oil is also:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antifungal
  • Antibacterial

Vitamin E Tocopherol

Topical application of Vitamin E cleared granuloma annulare lesions within one to three weeks (*)

  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic

Terpenes

Limonene is a monoterpene which is commonly found in citrus fruits, pine and mint.

Limonene, as well as other terpenes may enhance the absorption of CBD through the skin (*). It is anti-inflammatory, has shown to accelerate wound healing and to slow aging of the skin (*). It has also demonstrated analgesic properties (*). 

Linalool is antiseptic, antifungal, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory (*) and may accelerate the speed of wound healing (*). 

Linalool may beuseful for conditions involving pain and inflammation.

Eugenol is anti-inflammatory and analgesic (*), which may help the relief of pain in arthritis (*). Its also been shown to inhibit keratitis, which may be due to its antifungal properties (*).

Summary of Muscle Balm Effects

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic
  • Antifungal
  • Antibacterial

What is the cost per application?

CBD Warming Massage Oil

When would you use the Warming Oil?

The warming oil is a high concentration CBD formulation, which is ideal for giving attention to specific areas of the body. Just like it says, the experience is warming, from the cinnamon and black pepper in the oil.

Its ingredients are a concert of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and vasodilatory agents, which support the nourishment and repair of tired and sore muscles.

Its use is well suited to sports massage, and deep tissue. The consistency provides a smooth glide, which is in contrast to the balm. If your clients still want high concentration but without the grip, the warming oil is the one.

The oil is also nourishing to the skin, and is an antioxidant and antimicrobial. You can also use it in combination with the original oil, for a whole body massage. See how to use the original oil for more details.

Whats CBD warming massage oil good for?

  • Moisturising dry skin.
  • Protecting against ageing and wrinkled skin.
  • Repairing and rejuvenating damaged skin.
  • Alleviating aches and pains in combination with massage therapy.
  • Enhancing relaxation from massage therapy.
  • Increased blood flow to muscles for enhanced recovery and repair

What are the ingredients?

  • Olea Europaea (olive) fruit oil
  • Vitis Vinifera (grape) seed oil
  • Simmondsia Chinensis (jojoba) seed oil
  • C. Sativa L. (Full spectrum cannabis extract – 1000mg CBD)
  • Ricinus Communis (Castor) seed oil
  • Cedrus Atlantica wood (cedarwood) oil
  • Cinnamomum Cassia (cinnamon) leaf
  • Mentha Piperia (peppermint) oil
  • Piper Nigrum (black pepper) seed oil
  • Vitamin E Tocopherol
  • Limonene
  • Linalool
  • Eugenol

What are the benefits of this oil? 

Olive Oil

Has been shown to be effective against psoriasis, dermatitis (*), and tinea versicolor (fungal infection) (*).

Using olive oil topically has been effective for reducing pain in rheumatoid arthritis (*)

  • Antifungal
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic

Grape Seed Oil

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiarthritic
  • Antibacterial

Grape seed oil is a great source of the omega-6 fatty acid, Linolenic acid (*) which help balance levels of inflammation in the skin, protecting against skin conditions.

High amounts of monounstaurated fat, oleic acid is found within grape seed oil (*). Oleic acid is an essential component of cell membranes, which helps keep skin healthy.

High amounts of Vitamin E, as well as the phenols in grape seed oil protect the skin against ageing and damage, by acting as antioxidants (*).

An oil containing grapeseed was found to promote improved skin moisture, and elasticity (*).

Jojoba Seed Oil

Jojoba seed oil enhances the absorption of topical drugs (*), which is ideal for improving the delivery of CBD through the skin.

In animal studies, Jojoba sed oil (*):

  • Supported skin barrier repair
  • Showed possible antibacterial properties
  • Acted as an anti-inflammatory
  • Had an antioxidant effect
  • Supported wound healing
  • Protected against skin ageing

Cannabidiol

See CBD: Under the Skin

Castor Seed Oil

  • Analgesic (*)
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial

Cedarwood Oil

  • antiseptic
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antispasmodic
  • antifungal

Cinnamon Oil

Cinnamaldehyde is found in the volatile oil fraction of cinnamon. The volatile oil from cinnamon bark contains about 67% to 83% cinnamaldehyde.

Cinnamon has shown activity as an (*):

  • Antioxidant
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-inflammatory

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid can produce nitric oxide (*). Nitric oxide is responsible for dilating blood vessels (vasodilation), enhancing blood flow. Theoretically, this may support muscle soreness and recovery.

Peppermint Oil

Peppermint oil is a complex mixture of compounds, including 30% to 70% menthol, 15% to 30% menthone, 4% to 32% menthyl acetate, and 1% to 4% pulegone.

When applied topically, peppermint oil (10% Menthol) reduced neuropathic pain for 4-6 hours (*).

Patients with chronic pruritus (itch) using peppermint oil had significant improvement in all symptoms after 2 weeks (*)

Peppermint oil is also:

  • Antibacterial (*)
  • Antifungal (*)
  • Anti-inflammatory (*)
  • Antioxidant (*)

Black pepper Oil

Black pepper contains the active compound, Piperine which constitutes 5% to 9% of the fruit.

Piperine is an:

  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal

Piperine is also effective against vitiligo (*), a skin condition which discolours the skin.

Piperine is also a vasodilator (*), which may support increased blood flow to muscles, theoretically.

Vitamin E Tocopherol

Topical application of Vitamin E cleared granuloma annulare lesions within one to three weeks (*)

  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic

Terpenes

Limonene is a monoterpene which is commonly found in citrus fruits, pine and mint.

Limonene, as well as other terpenes may enhance the absorption of CBD through the skin (*). It is anti-inflammatory, has shown to accelerate wound healing and to slow aging of the skin (*). It has also demonstrated analgesic properties (*). 

Linalool is antiseptic, antifungal, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory (*) and may accelerate the speed of wound healing (*). 

Linalool may beuseful for conditions involving pain and inflammation.

Eugenol is anti-inflammatory and analgesic (*), which may help the relief of pain in arthritis (*). Its also been shown to inhibit keratitis, which may be due to its antifungal properties (*).

Summary of Warming Oil Effects

  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Analgesic
  • Vasodilator

How much CBD is contained within the Warming Oil?

  • 100ml contains approximately 1000mg of CBD.
  • One pump delivers approximately 1.8ml (18mg CBD)
  • A 5ml application contains 50mg CBD (3 pumps – 54mg)
  • A 10ml application contains 100mg CBD (6 pumps – 108mg).

What is the cost per application?

What is the percentage conc.?

1% (1000mg CBD / 100000mg Total x 100 = 1%)

CBD Original Massage Oil

When would you use the Original Oil?

The original oil is a great all rounder. The synergy of Jojoba, Grape, Olive and Almond oils is ideal for carrying CBD all over the body, whilst moisturising, regenerating and protecting the skin. 

Its a good anti-inflammatory, and can be used as an application for general skin health, and relaxation when combined with a massage. It may also support the relief of mild pain.

This oil can be used to in tandem with the warming oil. Because the original oil contains a lot of carrier oils, its ideal for stretching out your CBD whilst keeping your costs per application down.

If your client wants a higher dose of CBD across their whole body as opposed to a spot treatment, you can add a 5ml serving of warming oil to the original to up the dose of CBD.

Whats CBD warming massage oil good for?

  • Moisturising dry skin.
  • Protecting against ageing and wrinkled skin.  
  • Repairing and rejuvenating damaged skin.
  • Alleviating aches and pains in combination with massage therapy.
  • Enhancing relaxation from massage therapy.

What are the ingredients?

  • Prunus Dulcis (Almond) oil
  • Vitis Vinifera (grape) seed oil
  • C. Sativa L. (Full spectrum cannabis extract – 1000mg CBD)
  • Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) seed Oil
  • Olea Europea (Olive) fruit Oil
  • Vitamin E Tocopherol

What are the benefits of this oil? 

Almond Oil 

Historically, almond oil had been used in Ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic Medicine to treat dry skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema (*).

Almond oil is great all round. It contains lots of vitamin E, which acts as an antioxidant to help protect the skin from damage, and aid in its repair.

Its also a rich source of omega fatty acids, particularly omega-3. Fatty acids like omega-3 are great for keeping inflammation down, which is essential for keeping skin healthy.

Almond oil has emollient and sclerosant properties and, therefore, has been used to improve complexion and skin tone (*).

Its a great oil for massage, due to its moisturising and restructuring properties. Not to mention its packed full of monounsaturated fat, which is ideal for delivering CBD through the skin.

Grape Seed Oil

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiarthritic
  • Antibacterial

Grape seed oil is a great source of the omega-6 fatty acid, Linolenic acid (*) which help balance levels of inflammation in the skin, protecting against skin conditions.

High amounts of monounstaurated fat, oleic acid is found within grape seed oil (*). Oleic acid is an essential component of cell membranes, which helps keep skin healthy.

High amounts of Vitamin E, as well as the phenols in grape seed oil protect the skin against ageing and damage, by acting as antioxidants (*).

An oil containing grapeseed was found to promote improved skin moisture, and elasticity (*).

Jojoba Seed Oil

Jojoba seed oil enhances the absorption of topical drugs (*), which is ideal for improving the delivery of CBD through the skin.

In animal studies, Jojoba sed oil (*):

  • Supported skin barrier repair
  • Showed possible antibacterial properties
  • Acted as an anti-inflammatory
  • Had an antioxidant effect
  • Supported wound healing
  • Protected against skin ageing

Olive Oil

Has been shown to be effective against psoriasis, dermatitis (*), and tinea versicolor (fungal infection) (*).

Using olive oil topically has been effective for reducing pain in rheumatoid arthritis (*)

  • Antifungal
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Analgesic

How much CBD is contained within the Original Oil?

  • 250ml contains approximately 1000mg of CBD.
  • One pump delivers approximately 1.8ml (7.2mg CBD).
  • A 5ml application contains 20mg CBD (3 pumps – 21mg)
  • A 10ml application contains 40mg CBD (6 pumps – 43mg)

What is the cost per application?

What is the percentage conc.?

0.4% (1000mg CBD / 250000mg total x 100 = 0.4%)

Original Oil Summary

Used for general maintenance of healthy, vibrant skin.

Safety & Support

Safety

  • Not for oral consumption.
  • Avoid eye contact. Rinse with water in case of contact.
  • Keep out of reach of children.

Support

CBD does stain clothes and towels. Please use baking soda and white vinegar to clean towels or clothes, and/or use your own towels for treatment.

More info: https://greenlotushemp.com/2019/07/09/how-to-remove-hemp-oil-stains-from-your-clothes/

 

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